Cancer risk noted from human epidemiological research corroborated by largest new animal studies:

In 2011, the World Health Organisation (WHO) via the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as Group 2B ‘Possibly carcinogenic to humans’1. Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), an associated rapidly progressive fatal brain cancer and acoustic neuroma, satisfy the Hill criteria for causality from RFR exposure based on human epidemiological studies2. Human epidemiological evidence continued to accumulate34. In 2018 the largest animal study so far, published, from the highly credible US National Toxicology Program (NTP)56, declared the evidence for carcinogenesis ‘clear’, putting pressure on IARC to reassess urgently and elevate RFR to Group 1 ‘Known Human Carcinogen’78. Furthermore, the large-scale Ramazzini Institute study9 which used far field radiation designed to emulate base station type radiation was published shortly afterwards and independently confirmed promotion of carcinogenesis in cells of glial derivation. Legal authorities continue to validate the causal link between RFR and tumours10. The incidence of these kinds of brain tumours are rising in the UK11, Netherlands12, Australia13 and USA1415.

On 31st May 2011, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified radiofrequency (RF) radiation as Group 2b ‘Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Evidence of DNA breakage

With permission, thanks to Prof Franz Adlkofer. Image: Comet Assay demonstrating DNA damage from mobile phone exposure in vitro Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods – Final Report.

Funded by European Union 2004


this 2b classification applies to all RF frequencies, and is therefore relevant to all devices.


  1. World Health Organization: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Press Release No. 208, May 31st 2011. IARC Classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans
  2. Hardell L, Carlberg M, 2016. Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation, BioMed Research International,Volume 2017, Article ID 9218486
  3. Bortkiewicz A, Gadzicka E, Szymczak W. Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors – A meta-analysis [published correction appears in Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017 Jun 19;30(4):685]. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017;30(1):27‐43. DOI:
  4. Di Donato, I., Federico, A. News on the journal Neurological Sciences in 2017. Neurol Sci 39, 15–21 (2018).
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  7. Momoli F, Siemiatycki J, McBride ML, et al. Probabilistic Multiple-Bias Modeling Applied to the Canadian Data From the Interphone Study of Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Glioma, Meningioma, Acoustic Neuroma, and Parotid Gland Tumors. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(7):885‐893
  8. Luo J, Li H, Deziel NC, et al. Genetic susceptibility may modify the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer: A population-based case-control study in Connecticut. Environmental Research 2020; 182: 109013
  9. Wyde, M.E. et al., 2018. National Toxicology Program Technical Report on The Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies in Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD Rats Exposed to Whole-Body Radio Frequency Radiation at a Frequency (900 Mhz) and Modulations (GSM And CDMA) Used by Cell Phones, National Institutes of Health Public Health Service U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  10. Melnick, R, L., 2018. Commentary on the utility of the National Toxicology Program study on cell phone radiofrequency radiation data for assessing human health risks despite unfounded criticisms aimed at minimizing the findings of adverse health effects. Environ Res. 2019 Jan;168:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.09.010. Epub 2018 Sep 20.
  11. Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., 2019. “Comments on the US National Toxicology Program technical reports on toxicology and carcinogenesis study in rats exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 900 MHz and in mice exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 1,900 MHz”. International Journal of Oncology 54, no. 1 (2019): 111-127.
  12. Peleg et al., 2018. Radio frequency radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military setting. Environ Res. May;163:123-133. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.003
  13. Falcioni et al., 2018. Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission. Environ Res. 2018 Aug;165:496-503. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.037. 
  14. The Court of Appeal of Turin full judgment, 13 January 2020 (904/2019 of 3.12.2019 , Romeo v. INAIL
  15. Philips et al., 2018. Brain tumours: rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme incidence in England 1995–2015 suggests an adverse environmental or lifestyle factor. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2018 Apr 21
  16.  Ho VK, Reijneveld JC, Enting RH, et al. Changing incidence and improved survival of gliomas. European Journal of Cancer 2014; 50(13): 2309-18.doi: 10.1002/cam4.1757 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2014.05.019
  17. Dobes M, Shadbolt B, Khurana VG, et al. A multicenter study of primary brain tumor incidence in Australia (2000-2008). Neuro-oncology 2011; 13(7): 783-90.doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nor052
  18. Zada G, Bond AE, Wang YP, Giannotta SL, Deapen D. Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992-2006. World Neurosurgery 2012; 77(3-4): 518-24. DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2011.05.051
  19. Lehrer S, Green S, Stock RG. Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 2011; 101(3): 505-7. DOI: >